System Framework Personnel / Workforce Component
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The purpose of the Personnel/Workforce component of the System Framework is to guide states in the planning, development, implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive system of personnel development (CSPD). This component is the primary mechanism by which the state ensures that infants, toddlers, and young children with disabilities and their families, are provided services by knowledgeable, skilled, competent, and highly qualified personnel, and that sufficient numbers of these personnel are available in the state to meet service needs. The CSPD is a statutory requirement for Part C. Although no longer a mandate for Part B, we continue to use the terminology because CSPD has a lengthy and prominent history in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), dating back to the predecessor, the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA).
An ongoing, coordinated and strategically designed system of personnel development provides the supports needed by the other framework components. An effective CSPD is key to promoting both effective practices and the implementation of legal requirements as determined by the IDEA. It is important for understanding workforce capacity in order to provide timely and consistent services by prepared personnel. An effective system must coordinate and address state needs for both the number of personnel as well as the degree to which those personnel are supported and qualified for their roles in the service system. The CSPD acknowledges the coordination between preservice program and inservice training personnel development as critical for ensuring consistency of practices. A CSPD is informed by ongoing evaluation and multiple sources of data including stakeholder input, monitoring results and the capacity to implement child and program quality standards. The other components of a system framework inform the work of the CSPD and how it can support their effective implementation and desired results.
This component includes: leadership, coordination, and sustainability; state personnel standards; preservice personnel development; inservice personnel development; recruitment and retention; and evaluation. The leadership, coordination, and sustainability subcomponent addresses the membership and responsibilities of a leadership team and the required elements of a written plan for the CSPD. The state personnel standards subcomponent specifies criteria regarding the alignment of state standards with national standards established by discipline-specific organizations (e.g. CEC, ASHA, AOTA) for personnel knowledge, skills, and competencies, and bases state certification, licensure, credentialing, and/or endorsement upon these standards. The preservice personnel subcomponent requires institution of higher education (IHEs) to align programs of study with state and national personnel standards, coordinate with inservice training programs, and specifically prepare students to work with infants, toddlers, and preschool children and their families. The inservice personnel development subcomponent requires the availability of appropriately targeted and effective training and technical assistance to retool, extend, and update the knowledge, skills, and competencies of the workforce. The recruitment and retention subcomponent delineates strategies that must be in place to ensure the availability of sufficient numbers of highly competent personnel to meet the demand for services in the state. Finally, the evaluation subcomponent provides the basis for collecting data and examining all elements of the CSPD in order to identify strengths and weaknesses, and make appropriate modifications based on the findings.
The contents of this component of the System Framework were developed under cooperative agreement numbers #H326P120002 and #H325B120004 from the Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. Opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent the policy of the US Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.
Project Officers: Julia Martin Eile and Dawn Ellis
Personnel/Workforce (PN) Subcomponents
Subcomponent 1: Leadership, Coordination, and Sustainability
Quality Indicator PN1:
A cross-sector leadership team is in place that can set priorities and make policy, governance, and financial decisions related to the personnel system.
- The composition of the leadership team represents key partners from cross-sector early childhood systems, technical assistance programs, institutions of higher education, parent organizations as well as any other relevant stakeholders across disciplines.
- Additional stakeholder input, including from families, is actively solicited and considered by the leadership team in setting priorities and determining governance decisions.
- The leadership team members are aware of other related early childhood and school-age personnel development systems and align efforts when appropriate.
- The leadership team develops an overall vision, mission and purpose for the CSPD and makes decisions and implements processes that reflect these.
- The CSPD vision, mission and purpose are aligned with the overall early intervention and preschool special education systems.
- The leadership team examines current policies and state initiatives (e.g. quality rating and improvement systems, educator effectiveness frameworks) to identify opportunities for collaboration and the coordination of resources, including ongoing and sustained funding across cross-sector early childhood systems.
- The leadership team advocates for and identifies resources for cross-sector priorities and activities.
- The leadership team disseminates information on the CSPD plan to relevant public and private audiences.
Quality Indicator PN2:
There is a written multi-year plan in place to address all sub-components of the CSPD.
- The development and implementation of the CSPD plan is based on the specific vision, mission, and purpose for a CSPD.
- The CSPD plan is aligned with and informed by stakeholder input, national professional organization personnel standards, state requirements, and the vision, mission, and purpose of the cross-sector early childhood systems involved in the CSPD.
- The CSPD plan articulates a process for two way communication between stakeholders and the leadership team for soliciting input and sharing information on the implementation of activities.
- The CSPD plan includes strategies for engaging in ongoing formative evaluation and summative evaluation of the activities.
- The leadership team monitors both the implementation and effectiveness of the activities of the CSPD plan.
- The leadership team plans for and ensures that funding and resources are available to sustain the implementation of the CSPD plan.
Subcomponent 2: State Personnel Standards
Quality Indicator PN3:
State personnel standards across disciplines are aligned to national professional organization personnel standards.
- State personnel standards are based on core knowledge and skills needed for working with young children and their families in cross-sector early childhood systems.
- State personnel standards are specified, accessible, and used by program administrators and staff.
- State certification or licensing boards have a mechanism for assessing the degree to which state personnel standards are demonstrated by graduates of preservice programs across disciplines.
- State personnel standards are reviewed annually and updated, when appropriate, to reflect state personnel needs, changes in legal requirements, changes in national professional organizations personnel standards, evaluation data, and updated knowledge on evidence-based practices.
Quality Indicator PN4:
The criteria for state certification, licensure, credentialing and/or endorsement are aligned to state personnel standards and national professional organization personnel standards across disciplines.
- A system for articulating and attaining a certification, licensure, credentialing and/or endorsement exists across disciplines.
- The criteria and requirements for attaining certification, licensure, credentialing and/or endorsement are specified and accessible for personnel across disciplines.
- The criteria and requirements for a system of certification, licensure, credential and/or endorsement are competency or skill based.
- Mechanisms such as inter-state agreements and policies are defined and exist for cross state reciprocity of certification, licensure, credential and/or endorsement.
- The system criteria and requirements are reviewed and updated, as appropriate to reflect state personnel needs, changes in legal requirements, changes in national professional organization personnel standards, evaluation data, and updated knowledge on evidence-based practices.
Subcomponent 3: Preservice Personnel Development
Quality Indicator PN5:
Institution of higher education (IHE) programs and curricula across disciplines are aligned with both national professional organization personnel standards and state personnel standards.
- IHE programs and curricula for each discipline are based on knowledge and skill competencies that are aligned with state personnel standards.
- IHE programs and curricula for each discipline are based on knowledge and skill competencies that are aligned with national professional organization personnel standards.
- IHE program competencies are operationalized and defined by example.
- IHE programs and curricula for each discipline are aligned with state and local program quality initiatives and evaluation systems (e.g., QRIS, educator effectiveness frameworks, licensing).
- IHE programs and curricula for each discipline are coordinated to ensure an adequate number of programs of study are available to meet current and future personnel needs.
Quality Indicator PN6:
- IHE programs and curricula across disciplines recruit and prepare personnel for professional roles and responsibilities.
- IHE programs and curricula across disciplines contain evidence-based practices that reflect the learning needs of children with and at-risk for developmental delays and disabilities and their families.
- IHE programs and curricula provide relevant field experiences such as internships, observations, and practica in a variety of inclusive early childhood settings.
- IHE programs and curricula are reviewed, evaluated, and updated to reflect current intervention evidence and revised state personnel standards and national professional organization personnel standards.
- IHE programs of study and curricula utilize evidence-based professional development practices and instructional methods to teach and supervise adult learners.
- IHE faculty collaborate and plan with inservice providers to align preservice and inservice personnel development so there is a continuum in the acquisition of content from knowledge to mastery.
Subcomponent 4: Inservice Personnel Development
Quality Indicator PN7:
- A statewide system for inservice personnel development is aligned to national professional organization personnel standards across disciplines.
- A statewide system for inservice personnel development is aligned to state personnel standards across disciplines.
- The statewide system for inservice personnel development provides a variety of technical assistance opportunities to meet the needs of personnel.
- The inservice personnel development component of the CSPD plan is guided by updated needs assessments of the capability of the workforce in relation to the desired knowledge and skill competencies.
- Inservice personnel development is coordinated across early childhood systems and delivered collaboratively, as appropriate.
- Inservice personnel development employs evidence-based professional development practices that incorporate a variety of adult learning strategies including job embedded applications such as coaching, reflective supervision and supportive mentoring.
- Inservice learning opportunities are individualized to the needs of the participants and the objectives of the personnel development.
- Families and/or parent organization participate in the design and delivery of inservice personnel development.
Quality Indicator PN8:
- The content for inservice personnel development is based on evidence-based practices.
- Faculty from IHEs and inservice staff meet on a quarterly basis to plan for, coordinate, and collaborate on inservice content.
- Content for inservice personnel development extends the depth of core knowledge and skills (CKCs) acquired in preservice programs and addresses updated knowledge on evidence-based practices and changes in state policies and initiatives.
Subcomponent 5: Recruitment and Retention
Quality Indicator PN9:
Comprehensive recruitment and retention strategies are based on multiple data sources, and revised as necessary.
Quality Indicator PN10:
Comprehensive recruitment and retention strategies are being implemented across disciplines.
- Strategies include opportunities for advancement through a variety of processes such as articulation between two and four year institutions of higher education and access to career pathways/ladders.
- Strategies focus on induction, improving administrative supports, and using a variety of mentoring models to support and retain personnel.
- Strategies include incentives and recognition programs such as financial compensation, scholarships, service obligations, loan reimbursement and/or tuition reimbursement to improve access to preservice and inservice personnel development.
- Strategies address alternative routes to certification.
- Strategies address the usefulness of designing and/or participating in online recruitment systems.
Subcomponent 6: Evaluation
Quality Indicator PN11:
The evaluation plan for the CSPD includes processes and mechanisms to collect, store, and analyze data across all subcomponents.
- Decisions regarding priorities for evaluation questions to be addressed and data to be collected are identified when developing the CSPD plan.
- Multiple processes, mechanisms, and methods to collect data are identified and established based on the need for the information, usefulness of potential findings, and burden on respondents and systems.
- The state has the capacity to support data collection, management, and analysis for personnel qualifications, needs assessment, preservice and inservice personnel development, and personnel supply and demand.
- Quality review processes for data collection, verification, storage and management, and analysis are defined and implemented regularly.
- Personnel data are linked to child and family outcomes.
Quality Indicator PN12:
The evaluation plan is implemented, continuously monitored, and revised as necessary based on multiple data sources.
- The implementation of the evaluation plan results in data or data summaries and analysis that are useful for decision-making and are accessible across cross-sector early childhood systems.
- Data are used to inform decisions, monitor progress, and make program improvements.
- Data are collected on personnel variables, such as personnel development participation, acquisition of content, and performance of competencies and those data are examined in relation to relevant child and family outcomes.
- Data are collected on personnel development variables, such as units of personnel development, type and amount of support (e.g. observational feedback, coaching, practica), and content and those data are examined in relation to relevant child and family outcomes.
- Personnel Development
- Learning Lab: Exploring Coaching for Practice Change
- View Personnel/Workforce component resources (including all Quality Indicators and Elements of Quality)
- Search for resources (by Component, Quality Indicator or Element of Quality)
Each of the system framework components is based on a review of the literature. View the Personnel/Workforce Component references here.