Service Delivery Approaches and Models
There are many aspects of a service delivery system (See System Framework) but the basis of early intervention services under Part C of IDEA are family-centered services provided in natural environments (where families with children without disabilities or delays typically receive services and participate fully in family and community life.)
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Descriptions of Approaches/Models
Developers: Dathan Rush, M'Lisa Shelden
This is a team model in which one member is selected as the primary coach (to the family), and receives coaching support from other team members to strengthen parenting competence and confidence and promote child learning and development.
Developer: Robin McWilliam
This model includes the following practices: Routines-Based Interview (RBI), Ecomap, Functional Outcomes/Goals, Family Goals, Primary Service Provider, Collaborative Consultation, and Support-Based Home Visits (Family Collaboration).
Developers: Carl Dunst and Puckett Institute
Organized ideas from social system and activity learning theory to conceptualize a way of using everyday family and community opportunities, experiences and events to help young children with disabilities develop everyday knowledge and skills.
The related projects below reinforce the values that families are the center point of intervention and children learn functional skills through daily routine activities and interactions. The models support team collaboration, primary provider with cross agency integration, embedding interventions on functional outcomes within family routines and daily activities.
- TaCTICS: Therapists as Collaborative Team members for Infant/Toddler Community Services.
- FACETS: Family-guided Approaches to Collaborative EI Training and services.
- FGRBI: Family Guided Routines Based Intervention.
- FACTICS: Facilitating Administrative Change Toward Infant/Toddler Community Services.
State-Reported Use of Primary Service Provider Model/Approaches
In 2014, 37 Part C Coordinators responded to a query about the use of a Primary Service Provider service model:
- 13 States use a Primary Service Provider approach statewide
- 15 States use a Primary Service Provider approach in some areas
- 4 States are considering adopting a Primary Service Provider approach
- 5 States reported not using a Primary Service Provider approach
Additionally, they identified the following intervention approaches used in their services. The numbers are greater than 37 because the states could select more than one:
- Key Principles and Practices (Workgroup on Principles and Practices in Natural Environments) (23 States)
- Primary Coach Approach to Teaming also known as PSP with Coaching (Rush and Sheldon) (23 States)
- Routines Based Early Intervention with Primary Service Provider (McWilliam) (21 States)
- Early Intervention Workbook: Essential Practices for Quality Services (Cook and Younggren) (13 States)
- TaCTICS, FACTICS, FGRBI models (Woods), FACETS (Woods and Lindeman) (11 States)
- Combination (3 States)
- DEC Recommended Practices (1 State)
- Transdisciplinary Team (no source cited) (1 State)