Children with disabilities have the right to participate in everyday activities with their typically developing peers. The appropriate use of assistive technology (AT) in the classroom or playgroup, at home, and in the community supports natural learning opportunities and the successful inclusion of infants, toddlers and young children with disabilities in the full array of services and settings that are available to all young children.
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What is Assistive Technology (AT)?
Assistive technology can be thought of as any item that supports a child's ability to participate actively in his or her home, childcare program, school, or other community settings. It is a broad term that includes items ranging from something as "low tech" as a foam wedge for positioning to something as "high tech" as a power wheelchair for independent mobility. Other examples of assistive technology for young children include items such as switch-operated toys, laminated picture boards, head pointers, specialized drinking cups, adapted spoons, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices, computers, and more.
See also: Federal Definitions
Benefits of AT for Infants and Young Children
Assistive devices and services can be of great value in providing infants and young children with disabilities opportunities to learn and interact with their environment in ways that might not otherwise be possible. For example, assistive technology can help a child to:
- participate more actively in family, school and community activities
- play successfully with toys and other children
- communicate his or her needs and ideas
- make choices
- move independently
Accessing and Funding AT for Infants and Young Children
According to the IDEA, all children who are eligible to receive special education or early intervention services are also eligible to receive assistive technology, if it is included as part of their Individualized Education Program (IEP) or Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP).
Children with disabilities, even those who are not eligible for special education under IDEA, may also be entitled to the provision of assistive technology under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act or under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Part B of the IDEA requires that assistive technology be considered as part of the evaluation process under 20 U.S.C. §1414(d)(3)(B)(v). However, if this does not happen, an assistive technology evaluation can be requested at any time. Additionally, if parents are not satisfied with the results of the evaluation provided by their child's school, they may request an independent evaluation at the school's expense under 34 CFR §300.502(b).
See also: Funding Resources and Federal Laws and Regulations
Assistive technology evaluation, selection, training and maintenance should be carried out by qualified professionals, with active participation on the part of the family. The IDEA requires that all special education services be family-centered and directly related to the family's priorities and concerns for their child. Family members are in a position to provide valuable information about the child's strengths, interests and daily routines, which is critical for determining what kinds of AT devices and services will best meet the child and family's needs. AT abandonment (rejection, non-use of the device) is often due to the fact that family input played only a small role in the AT evaluation and selection process. Understanding and taking into account the values, resources, concerns and routines of the child's family helps to ensure a greater level of success when it comes to using assistive technology effectively in the child's everyday activities.
See also: Selected Bibliography of Articles and Books on Assistive Technology: Family Involvement/Diversity Issues
Assistive Technology in Natural and Least Restrictive Environments
As part of the evaluation process, families and professionals need to decide where assistive technology devices and services will be provided to best meet the child's needs. The Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers (Part C of IDEA) states that assistive technology must be provided in natural environments, to the maximum extent appropriate, for children ages birth–3 (34 CFR §303.13(a)(8)). Such environments might include, for example, the child's home, childcare program or other community settings in which children without disabilities participate.
The Preschool Grants Program (Section 619 under Part B of IDEA) states that services are to be provided to children ages 3–5 in the least restrictive environment (LRE) possible (34 CFR §300.114). This means that to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities should be educated with their typically developing peers.
Furthermore, the IDEA Part B regulations state that the use of school-purchased assistive technology devices in a child's home or in other settings is required, if the child's IEP team determines that this is necessary for the child to receive a free and appropriate education (34 CFR §300.105(b)).
See also: Early Intervention Services and Inclusion
Assistive Technology and Transition Planning
As the child moves from an early intervention program into a preschool program at age three, assistive technology concerns should be discussed at the transition planning conference (34 CFR §303.209(c)) and should be included on the child's IEP. Issues regarding the ownership and/or portability of AT devices from one setting to the next need to be addressed early on, in order to ensure that there is no interruption in the use of these devices if they are deemed necessary for the child to receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE) under Part B of IDEA. This is an especially important issue to consider if agencies other than the school system have purchased the assistive technology device under Part C.