Improving Systems, Practices and Outcomes

Natural Environment Bibliography Form: Help

Literature Type

Articles may reflect one or more type of literature.

  • Assessment/evaluation tool description: provide information and details about evaluation and assessment tools or the development and validation of instruments/tools used in early intervention
  • Literature review/ Review of research: syntheses of early intervention research or meta-analysis of research literature exploring similar questions
  • Mixed methods: includes multiple methods of research design, often with both qualitative and quantitative methods.
  • Opinion: reflect the authors' opinion but do not include research methods or results
  • Personnel Preparation: provide information and resources about personnel preparation methods or programs in early intervention
  • Program Description: provide information and details about specific programs, curricula, service delivery approaches, intervention strategies and/or processes in early intervention
  • Qualitative Research: descriptive studies using such methods as observation, interview, case studies, ethnographies, etc.
  • Quantitative Research with Control: applies a treatment to one group of study participants and compares effects with a comparable but untreated control group
  • Quantitative Research: systematic empirical investigations analyzing numeric data to answer a question or test a theory
  • Theoretical: describe the authors' theories and hypotheses but do not include research methods or results.


Examples given in each code are meant to be indicative of the types of professionals that may fall within a category, but do not constitute an exhaustive list of the types of professionals that may be included.

  • All Professionals: includes service coordinators, educators, therapists, etc.
  • Child Care Providers (e.g., public, private daycare or preschool providers)
  • EI/ECSE Professionals: includes home visitors, infant toddler specialists, teachers, early childhood special educators, etc.
  • Mental Health Providers such as social workers, psychologists or counselors
  • Other: this category will capture professionals not otherwise listed in this coding.
  • Parents of children or adults with disabilities
  • PT/OT: physical and occupational therapists
  • SLP: speech, language pathologists and speech therapists
  • Therapists (all): includes all therapists working in early intervention (e.g., SLPs, PT, and OT).


  • At-risk: Children living with biological or social risk factors which are associated with increased incidence of developmental delays or disabilities
  • Autism
  • Behavioral & Social Emotional Delays and Disabilities: including infant and child mental health issues
  • General Populations: pertains to all disability areas or across populations or mentions multiple populations within the article.
  • Medically Fragile: pertains to children with health related risk factors or conditions
  • Motor delays and disorders: may include both gross and fine motor, or only gross or fine motor delays
  • N/A: a specific disability is not named within the article or reviewers have determined that the content is not disability specific.
  • Significant Delays or Disabilities
  • Speech and language delays and disorders


This code enables a search by different types of demographics, including diverse and minority populations, urban and rural settings and income level.

  • General/mixed demographics: The article may indicate that it pertains to multiple demographics, or has been noted by reviewers to relate specifically to population
  • Urban
  • Rural
  • Diverse/minority: related specifically to a minority population, or specifically to diversity issues within early intervention
  • Low Income
  • Not a specific focus: does not specifically relate to demographic or diversity issues

Age group of children addressed:

  • Ages 3 through five
  • Birth through age 2
  • Birth through age 5
  • IDEAs that Work: Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education

The ECTA Center is a program of the FPG Child Development Institute of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, funded through cooperative agreement number H326P170001 from the Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. Opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education's position or policy.

Project Officer: Julia Martin Eile     © 2012-2019 ECTA Center

  • UNC Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute