Improving Systems, Practices and Outcomes

Zika Virus Resources

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1. U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure - Update

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - April 4, 2017

Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus-Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure - U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016 (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 66, Early Release - April 4, 2017) - This new report finds that in 2016 a total of 1,297 pregnancies with possible recent Zika virus infection were reported to the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry from 44 states. Approximately one in 10 pregnancies with Zika virus infection resulted in associated birth defects. Birth defects were highest among first trimester Zika virus infections - approximately 15 percent. Early identification can help to ensure that appropriate intervention and follow-up care are available to affected infants.

2. New Zika Virus Resources from CDC

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - December 2016

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently released preliminary estimates of birth defects after Zika Virus infection during pregnancy based on data available as of September 22, 2016. CDC has also added the following new "What to Know" 2-page information sheets to their Zika Virus webpage. These information sheets were developed for practitioners to help answer questions from women who have been exposed to Zika or who have babies who were born after being exposed to the Zika virus.

See also, Zika Virus - 10 Public Health Achievements in 2016 and Future Priorities (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - December 30, 2016).

3. Zika Virus Resources from the AAP

Source: American Academy of Pediatrics - November 17, 2016

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has added a new Zika Virus page to its website, which includes: AAP Zika Response Activities, Latest News, Guidance Specific to Children, Psychosocial Support, Resources for Health Care Providers and Health Departments, State Level Actions, General Information on Zika, and more.

4. Preparedness for Zika Virus Disease - New York City, 2016

Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Vol. 65, No. 42, October 28, 2016

A new paper from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Preparedness for Zika Virus Disease - New York City, 2016, reports that the rapid spread of Zika virus has had a direct effect on the U.S. health care delivery system. As of September 21, 2016, a total of 715 cases of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease had been diagnosed in New York state, representing the highest number of reported cases in any state to date. This underscores the importance of health care systems preparing to care for patients with possible Zika virus disease and the need for providers to educate patients, especially pregnant women, about avoiding infection with Zika virus. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can lead to adverse birth outcomes such as microcephaly, defects of the eye, hearing deficits, and impaired growth.

5. The Zika Virus: Implications for Collaboration across Human Services Agencies and State Action Plans

Source: Public Consulting Group - September 2016

A new white paper, The Zika Virus: Implications for Collaboration across Human Services Agencies and State Action Plans (September 2016), is designed to help human service agencies, including early intervention, child care, early childhood, and public welfare agencies, start the process of coordinating and preparing to support children and families affected by the Zika virus. Research has documented a wide range of neurologic abnormalities in babies infected with Zika, including microcephaly, problems with vision, hearing loss, and impaired growth. The white paper provides information about the causes and costs of the Zika virus, state government and provider planning efforts, actionable suggestions for prevention and intervention, and a comprehensive list of state-by-state online resources for Zika action planning.

6. Zika Virus Disease Cases - 50 States and the District of Columbia

Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 65, Early Release (September 13, 2016)

Zika virus infection during pregnancy can lead to adverse birth outcomes such as microcephaly, defects of the eye, hearing deficits, and impaired growth. A new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zika Virus Disease Cases - 50 States and the District of Columbia, January 1-July 31, 2016 finds that as of September 3, 2016, a total of 2,382 confirmed or probable cases of Zika virus disease during January 1-July 31, 2016 were reported from 48 of 50 states and the District of Columbia. Most cases were travel-associated.

Resources about Zika Virus for families and for healthcare providers can be found on CDC's Zika website. Health care providers are encouraged to educate patients, especially pregnant women, about avoiding infection with Zika virus, and all pregnant women should be assessed for possible Zika virus exposure at each prenatal visit.

7. Hearing Loss in Infants with Microcephaly and Evidence of Congenital Zika Virus

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - August 30, 2016

A new report, Hearing Loss in Infants with Microcephaly and Evidence of Congenital Zika Virus Infection - Brazil, November 2015-May 2016 (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 65, Early Release - August 30, 2016) finds that among 70 children with microcephaly and laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection, four of 69 were found to have sensorineural hearing loss without other potential cause. Children with evidence of the virus infection who have normal initial screening tests should receive regular follow-up, because hearing loss can be delayed.

8. New Guidance and Data Related to Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - August 26, 2016

The following two new reports related to infants with possible congenital Zika virus are now available online. Additional resources for families and for healthcare providers can be found on CDC's Zika website.

  • Update: Interim Guidance for the Evaluation and Management of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection-United States, August 2016 (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(33), August 26, 2016) - This revised guidance updates recommendations for the initial evaluation and testing of infants with confirmed or possible congenital exposure to Zika infection, and establishes recommendations for the outpatient management and follow-up of infants with laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection, with or without apparent associated birth defects. The guidance also emphasizes that families and caregivers will need ongoing psychosocial support and assistance with coordination of care.
  • Estimating the number of infants that may be born with congenital Zika virus infection and microcephaly following the Zika outbreak in Puerto Rico, 2016 (Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Pediatrics, Online First, August 19, 2016) - In this report, CDC scientists estimate that 5,900-10,300 pregnant women might be infected during the Zika virus outbreak in Puerto Rico in 2016, in the absence of effective interventions. Of these, they estimated that 100-270 infections might lead to microcephaly in infants between mid-2016 and mid-2017. These estimates underscore the importance of the urgent actions being taken in Puerto Rico to prevent Zika virus infection during pregnancy and the need to plan for medical and supportive services for families affected by Zika.

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