Reducing Early Childhood Expulsion and Suspension Resources

eNotes search results for 'expulsion or suspension'. Please note that links in past issues of eNotes may become inactive over time. If you are looking for an item that has an inactive link, please contact Sonya Detwiler for assistance.

1. State Policy Strategy to Prevent Expulsion from Early Learning Setting

Source: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children & Families

In September 2017, this state policy tool was published by the Administration for Children & Families to provide states policy options that promote the social-emotional development of young children and reduce expulsions in early learning programs. Aligned with the 2014 Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) reauthorization, this resource assists stakeholders to identify strengths, set goals for action, and develop partnerships with others, such as medical and mental health professionals.

2. Position Statement on Challenging Behavior

Source: Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children

DEC has released its Position Statement on Challenging Behavior and Young Children (July 2017) to readdress the significance of healthy social-emotional competence of all children and provide guidance to practitioners, teachers, and families in preventing and effectively responding to challenging behaviors. DEC's position includes culturally sustaining, family-focused practices, as well as, a commitment to inclusion, professional development, technical assistance, and using approaches that eliminate suspension and expulsion.

3. Why is it so hard to stop suspending kindergarteners?

Source: The Hechinger Report

According to the findings in this recent Hechinger Report (May 2017) some states continue to struggle with the high number of suspension cases for young children. "In 2014, the U.S. Department of Education reported 5,000 preschoolers were suspended at least once, and 2,500 preschoolers were suspended more than once." Research shows this experience in early school years can cause irreversible damage academically. The report highlights the cultural demographics of young children receiving the most suspensions and explores different teacher skills training practices some states are using to address behavioral issues. Maintaining strong relationships between students and their families is a key component.

4. Early Childhood Suspension and Expulsion - New Policy Report

Source: Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes - March 2017

A new policy report from the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) provides resources to inform early childhood stakeholders at the state and local level interested in developing policy and guidance for programs to prevent and reduce suspension and expulsion. Information and Resources to Assist States in Developing Policy on Early Childhood Suspension and Expulsion (March 2017) includes a brief review of the research on the impact and prevalence of suspension and expulsion in early childhood programs, highlights of key federal and national policy on suspension and expulsion in early childhood programs, an overview of emerging state policy, a description of effective approaches to prevent suspension and expulsion of young children, and considerations for states in developing policy in this area.

5. Pyramid Equity Project - January 2017 Update

Source: Pyramid Equity Project - January 2017

The Pyramid Equity Project (PEP) is working in partnership with two Preschool Development Grant programs to address inequities in early childhood discipline practices. The project will implement the Pyramid Model to promote the social and emotional skills of all children, prevent challenging behavior of children at risk of challenging behavior, and provide individualized interventions for children with persistent challenging behavior. The goal is to demonstrate how programs, children and families all thrive in an environment where no suspensions and expulsions occur. See the Pyramid Equity Project - January 2017 Update for more information.

6. Guide on Preventing Suspensions and Expulsions in Early Childhood Settings

Source: SRI International - December 14, 2016

A new research-based tool, Preventing Suspensions and Expulsions in Early Childhood Settings: A Program Leader's Guide to Supporting All Children's Success, provides recommended policies and practices that address the underlying root causes of suspension and expulsion and effective alternatives. It was developed with guidance from a panel of national experts. The interactive guide includes resources on supporting social-emotional development, reducing challenging behavior, recognizing the role of cultural differences and implicit biases, and more. A self-assessment survey is included to help provide a tailored roadmap to navigating the guide.

7. Preventing Expulsion and Suspension in Early Learning Settings

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - November 7, 2016

An updated report, Spotlighting Progress in Policy and Supports: State and Local Action to Prevent Expulsion and Suspension in Early Learning Settings (November 2016) provides a newly revised snapshot of innovative policies and support strategies State and local leaders around the country are putting into place to prevent, reduce, and ultimately eliminate expulsion and suspension practices in early learning settings. Additionally, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has released two new informational memoranda to support implementation of the HHS-ED Joint Policy Statement on Expulsion and Suspension Policies in Early Childhood Settings, which was published in 2014.

To learn more, go to Reducing Suspension and Expulsion Practices in Early Childhood Settings.

8. Questions of Access and Equity: Suspension and Expulsion in PreK

Source: National Institute for Early Education Research - October 26, 2016

Barriers to equitable access to quality prekindergarten have been correlated to demographic indicators of poverty and race. Recent data also indicate that children with challenging behaviors may face additional barriers due to disciplinary practices. Read more in this new blog post from the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) - Questions of Access and Equity: Suspension and Expulsion in PreK (October 26, 2016).

9. Early Childhood Expulsion / Suspension and Opportunity Gaps for Boys of Color

Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Child Care Aware - October 14, 2016

Two recently published briefs examine issues related to early childhood expulsion and suspension, as well as barriers to accessing quality early childhood education for young boys of color in the U.S.

These two briefs are part of a series of issue briefs commissioned by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Forward Promise Initiative.

10. Implicit Bias in Preschool: A Research Study Brief

Source: Yale Child Study Center - September 28, 2016

New research findings suggest that preschool teachers and staff show signs of implicit biases in administering discipline, and the nature of these biases differ based on the race of the teacher. The findings may help to explain why black children are suspended at significantly higher rates than white children. The authors provide a number of recommendations for how implicit biases may be addressed and reduced. To learn more, see Do Early Educators' Implicit Biases Regarding Sex and Race Relate to Behavior Expectations and Recommendations of Preschool Expulsions and Suspensions? (September 28, 2016), by Walter S. Gilliam, Angela N. Maupin, Chin R. Reyes, Maria Accavitti, Frederick Shic.

11. The Pyramid Equity Project - Addressing Preschool Suspension and Expulsion

Source: U.S. Departments of Education and Health and Human Services - August 15, 2016

The U.S. Departments of Education and Health and Human Services recently announced a $1 million investment in the Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) to implement the Pyramid Equity Project, which will develop and disseminate an effective approach for the prevention of suspension, expulsion, and discipline disparities in early learning programs. Specifically, the Pyramid Equity Project will develop tools, materials, and procedures to explicitly address implicit bias, implement culturally responsive practices, and use data systems to understand potential discipline equity issues. For more information see:

Additional information is available at http://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/ed/earlylearning/index.html

12. Suspension and Expulsion in Preschool Development States: Policies and Practices

Source: Preschool Development Grant Technical Assistance Program - Retrieved August 17, 2016

The expulsion and suspension of preschool age children has been receiving considerable attention at many levels. A new report, Suspension and Expulsion in Preschool Development States: Policies and Practices, looks at how Preschool Development Grant states are responding to the expulsion and suspension of their youngest students, outlining policies and practices used. The report also discusses relevant federal and state policies aimed at mitigating the excessive use of expulsion and suspension for preschool students.

13. A First Look: Key Data Highlights on Equity and Opportunity Gaps in Our Nation's Public Schools

Source: Office for Civil Rights - June 7, 2016

Initial results from the 2013-14 Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) have been published in a new report, A First Look: Key Data Highlights on Equity and Opportunity Gaps in Our Nation's Public Schools (June 2016). The report includes information on suspension and expulsion from public preschool (page 3) and on the availability of free or partial-payment preschool (page 5).

14. Standing Together Against Suspension and Expulsion in Early Childhood: A Joint Statement

Source: National Association for the Education of Young Children - April 27, 2016

A group of more than 30 national organizations recently published a joint statement, Standing Together Against Suspension and Expulsion in Early Childhood: A Joint Statement (April 2016), which supports the recommendations from the U.S. Departments of Education and Health and Human services in their December 2014 Joint Policy Statement on Expulsion and Suspension. The organizations have also compiled a number of related resources to help states, districts, communities, and classrooms prevent, limit, and ultimately eliminate suspension and expulsion in early childhood education.

15. Progress Report on Reducing Expulsion and Suspension in Early Learning Settings

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - April 22, 2016

A new report, State and Local Action to Prevent Expulsion and Suspension in Early Learning Settings (April 2016), highlights steps states and local communities have taken to address expulsion and suspension in early learning settings. Some of these include: passing new legislation to restrict expulsions and suspensions in preschool programs; revising regulations to improve the social-emotional supports children in child care programs receive; and expanding early childhood mental health consultation to support teachers and providers.

16. Expelling Expulsion Fact Sheet

Source: Pyramid Model Consortium - April 8, 2016

A fact sheet summarizing current research findings about suspension and expulsion of children, particularly children of color, from early childhood settings was recently posted on the Pyramid Model Consortium website. The fact sheet includes recommendations and suggestions for using the Pyramid Model to address this national problem. See Fact Sheet: Expelling Expulsion: Using the Pyramid Model to Prevent Suspensions, Expulsions, and Disciplinary Inequities in Early Childhood Programs.

17. Proposed Rule Promoting Equity in the IDEA - Comment Period Now Open

Source: U.S. Department of Education - March 2, 2016

The proposed rule that would amend regulations under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was published in the Federal Register on March 2, 2016. Comments are being accepted until May 16, 2016 (click on the green box that says "Submit a Formal Comment" at the top of the page). With the goal of promoting equity in the IDEA, the regulations would:

  • establish a standard methodology States must use to determine whether significant disproportionality based on race and ethnicity is occurring in the State and in its local educational agencies (LEAs);
  • clarify that States must address significant disproportionality in the incidence, duration, and type of disciplinary actions, including suspensions and expulsions, using the same statutory remedies required to address significant disproportionality in the identification and placement of children with disabilities;
  • clarify requirements for the review and revision of policies, practices, and procedures when significant disproportionality is found; and,
  • require that LEAs identify and address the factors contributing to significant disproportionality as part of comprehensive coordinated early intervening services (comprehensive CEIS) and allow such services for children from age 3 through grade 12, with and without disabilities.

18. RethinkDiscipline in Early Childhood Settings: Online Discussion

Source: U.S. Department of Education - October 15, 2015

On October 15, 2015, Assistant Secretary Michael Yudin convened national experts for an online discussion about the use of suspensions and expulsions in early childhood settings, and local efforts to end the use of exclusionary discipline for young children. Watch the discussion on YouTube. Yudin was joined by:

  • Walter Gilliam - Director of the Edward Zigler Center in Child Development and Social Policy
  • Beth Mascitti-Miller - Chief to Office of Early Childhood Education, Chicago Public Schools
  • Myra Jones-Taylor - Commissioner of Early Childhood, State of Connecticut
  • Alison Pepper - Consultant for faith-based and secular early childhood education programs

19. HHS Launches National Center of Excellence for Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - October 10, 2015

This week the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) launched the new National Center of Excellence in Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (IECMHC). IECMHC is a multi-level preventive intervention that teams mental health professionals with people who work with young children and their families. The model builds the capacity of teachers and families to promote social-emotional and behavioral development. It has demonstrated impacts for improving children's social skills and adult-child relationships; reducing challenging behaviors, expulsions and suspensions; increasing family-school collaboration; increasing classroom quality; and reducing teacher stress, burnout, and turnover. See the full announcement here.

20. Informational Memorandum - Children's Social-Emotional and Behavioral Health

Source: Office of Child Care - September 8, 2015

The Office of Child has released an informational memorandum that provides policy recommendations related to promoting children's social-emotional health for states to consider as they prepare their Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) State plans. Some of the recommendations include: enhancing the quality of workforce preparation, attending to continuity of care and appropriate ratio policies, establishing appropriate expulsion and suspension policies, implementing universal developmental and behavioral screenings, and implementing statewide coaching and consultation systems.

21. Early Childhood Suspension and Expulsion Bibliography

Source: Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes - August 31, 2015

This annotated bibliography provides a selection of research studies and federal and state policy resources related to early childhood suspension, expulsion, and discipline and what can be done to prevent these practices. See Early Childhood Suspension and Expulsion (August 2015).

22. Reducing Suspension and Expulsion Practices in Early Childhood Settings

Source: U.S. Department of Education, Administration for Children and Families - Retrieved August 6, 2015

Recent data indicate that expulsions and suspensions regularly occur in preschool settings. This is a problematic issue given the well-established research indicating that these practices can influence a number of adverse outcomes across development, health, and education. In addition, stark racial and gender disparities exist in these practices, with young boys of color being suspended and expelled at much higher rates than other children in early learning programs. The Administration for Children and Families provides links to a number of free, publicly available resources to aid states in their efforts to prevent, limit and ultimately eliminate expulsion and suspension practices in early learning settings at http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ecd/child-health-development/reducing-suspension-and-expulsion-practices

23. Four Pieces Address Expulsion and Suspension Practices in Early Learning Settings

Source: American Psychological Association - Retrieved February 4, 2015

Preschool expulsions occur at a significantly higher rate than that of grades K-12 and are greatly disproportionate to young boys of color. Part of President Obama's "My Brother's Keeper Initiative" encourages states, early childhood programs, and families to partner in preventing, reducing, and eventually eliminating the expulsion and suspension of young children from early learning programs. Recently, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for Children and Families (ACF) worked with the American Psychological Association (APA) who highlighted this issue by hosting the following four pieces on Psychology Benefits Society, a blog from the APA Public Interest Directorate:

These pieces follow the release in December 2014 of the Policy Statement on Expulsion and Suspension Practices in Early Learning Settings by the U.S. Departments of Education (ED) and Health and Human Services (HHS).

24. Policy Statement on Expulsion and Suspension Practices in Early Learning Settings

Source: U.S. Departments Of Education and Health and Human Services - December 10, 2014

On December 10, 2014, a new Policy Statement on Expulsion and Suspension Practices in Early Learning Settings was released by the U.S. Departments Of Education and Health and Human Services. Exclusionary discipline practices occur at high rates in early learning settings, and at even higher rates for young boys of color. The effort, part of President Obama's My Brother's Keeper Initiative, encourages states, early childhood programs, and families to partner in preventing, reducing, and eventually eliminating the expulsion and suspension of young children from early learning programs.

25. Implementing Policies to Reduce the Likelihood of Preschool Expulsion

Source: The Foundation for Child Development - January 10, 2008

A new policy brief, Implementing Policies to Reduce the Likelihood of Preschool Expulsion by Walter S. Gilliam, examines factors associated with expulsion from prekindergarten. The author specifically addresses those factors that may inform changes in policy that can be both implemented and regulated. It is available online at http://fcd-us.org/resources/implementing-policies-reduce-likelihood-preschool-expulsion.

This policy brief is a follow-up to the 2005 study Prekindergartners Left Behind: Expulsion Rates in State Prekindergarten Programs, which looked at expulsion rates by program setting, gender, race/ethnicity, and state.

26. Children's Mental Health: Facts for Policymakers

Source: NCCP - November 3, 2006

The National Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP) has developed a fact sheet on mental health that highlights the nature of mental health problems among children and the lack of adequate services. Latino children are less likely to receive services than children of other ethnic groups. Preschool children face expulsion rates three times higher than children in kindergarten through 12th grade - a factor attributed in part to lack of attention to social-emotional needs. African-American preschoolers are 3 to 5 times more likely to be expelled than their white, Latino, or Asian-American peers. Public policy strategies to improve mental health services for children are reviewed. The fact sheet is available online at http://nccp.org/publications/pub_687.html

27. Pre-K Students Expelled at More Than Three Times the Rate of K-12 Students

Source: Foundation for Child Development - May 17, 2005

Pre-K students are expelled at a rate more than three times that of children in grades K-12, according to a primary study by Yale Child Study Center researcher Walter S. Gilliam. The lowest rates of expulsion were reported by teachers who had an ongoing, regular relationship with a behavioral consultant. In classrooms where the teacher had no access to a behavioral consultant, students were expelled about twice as frequently. The study, "Pre-kindergartners Left Behind: Expulsion Rates in State Prekindergarten Systems," reports on expulsion rates by program setting (public school, Head Start, private providers), gender, and race/ethnicity. It also presents expulsion data from all 40 states that fund prekindergarten programs. To download the report go to http://fcd-us.org/resources/prekindergartners-left-behind-expulsion-rates-state-prekindergarten-programs

Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center

  • CB 8040
  • Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040
  • phone: 919.962.2001
  • fax: 919.966.7463
  • email: ectacenter@unc.edu

ECTA Center is a program of the FPG Child Development Institute of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, funded through cooperative agreement number H326P170001 from the Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. Opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education's position or policy.

Project Officer: Julia Martin Eile

  • FPG Child Development Institute
  • IDEAs that Work